Intermolecular Forces

The Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids


The physical properties of a substance depends upon its physical state.

Water vapor, liquid water and ice all have the same chemical properties, but their physical properties are considerably different.

Covalent bonds determine

Intermolecular forces (non-covalent bonds) influence

The Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids

Gases

Liquids

Thus, liquids can be poured and assume the shape of their containers

Solids

Due to the strong intermolecular forces between neighboring molecules, solids are rigid

The state of a substance depends on the balance between the kinetic energy of the individual particles (molecules or atoms) and the intermolecular forces

Gases have weaker intermolecular forces than liquids

Liquids have weaker intermolecular forces than solids

Changing the state of a substance

Temperature

Pressure


1996 Michael Blaber